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Hi Antuaneth and welcome to the forums!
The type of I/O modules you spec are going to correspond to the voltage of the I/O components you will be using. For example, the voltage of your solenoids, proximity switchs etc. If this is something that you will be choosing also, then you may want to look at the 24VDC options, as most controls are moving to the 24VDC variety for safety, variety as well as other reasons.
As for the catalog number of the various controllers, this largely corresponds to the memory size of the given processor. You mentioned the 5580 series, I actually did an article that compares these different processors, https://plcgurus.net/controllogix-5580-processor-line-reviewed/ . You may want to give it a read.
As far as software tools go to help you layout/design your system at a high level you could look into Studio 5000 Architect. It is designed exactly for this. You can check it out here: https://www.rockwellautomation.com/rockwellsoftware/products/studio5000-architect.page#overview. Of course this is not a free tool as far I know.
Based on your IO estimates I don’t suspect you are going to need a lot of horsepower in that regard and could possibly look at the CompactLogix line of controllers if your project will allow it. There’s some cost savings there if you can, and it still uses the Studio 5000 programming environment.
Most IO modules you will provide field supplied power to (120VAC or 24VDC), with some exceptions of course. My advice for any particular IO module is to go to the Rockwell website and search for the particular module. Here is the Product Configuration Assistant page for ControlLogix modules.
On this page just click on the module you want to see and it will bring you to the associated drawings and wiring diagrams for that module. Also you’ll note a tab for “Documentation” in here you can download the user manuals for all sort of modules for more indepth understanding.
Hope that helps!